This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0 license. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.
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In its simplest form, the Internet is a collection of connected documents or objects. Hyperlinks are what connect these documents.
The Internet is a worldwide network that allows for information to be shared between users (also known as “nodes”). The World Wide Web is a subset of this that caters specifically to Web sites.
A hyperlink is a virtual link from one document on the World Wide Web to another. It includes the uniform resource locator (URL)The unique identifying address of any particular page on the Web. It contains all the information required to locate a resource, including its protocol (usually hypertext transfer protocol [HTTP]), server domain name (or IP address), file path (directory and name), and format (usually hypertext markup language [HTML] or common gateway interface [CGI]). of the linked-to document, which describes where on the Internet a document is. It is what you enter in the address bar of the browser because it is the address of that document on the Internet.
A URL provides information to both browsers and people. URLs include domain names, which translate to Internet protocol (IP) addresses. Every Web site corresponds to an Internet protocol (IP) addressUsed to uniquely identify a computer and system on the Internet., which is a structured series of dots and numbers indicating where it is physically located. When you enter a URL into the address bar of a browser, the DNS record indicates where the document is that you are linking to. Many domains can translate to the same IP address.
Confused? Look at the domain name and IP address for Quirk’s Web site:
A domain name looks something like this:
But a lot more information can be included in this. Domain names can carry the following information:
The TLD can indicate the country in which a domain is registered and can also give information about the nature of the domain:
Domain names must be registered, and there is a fee for doing so.
The anatomy of the domain is as follows: subdomain.domain.tld/directory