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Previously in this chapter we discussed how to make your main points flow logically. This section is going to provide you with a number of organization patterns to help you create a logically organized speech. The first organization pattern we’ll discuss is categorical/topical.
By far the most common pattern for organizing a speech is by categories or topics. The categories function as a way to help the speaker organize the message in a consistent fashion. The goal of a categorical/topical speech patternSpeech format in which a speaker organizes the information into categories, which helps an audience understand a single topic. is to create categories (or chunks) of information that go together to help support your original specific purpose. Let’s look at an example.
|Specific Purpose||To persuade a group of high school juniors to apply to attend Generic University|
|Main Points||I. Life in the dorms|
|II. Life in the classroom|
|III. Life on campus|
In this case, we have a speaker trying to persuade a group of high school juniors to apply to attend Generic University. To persuade this group, the speaker has divided the information into three basic categories: what it’s like to live in the dorms, what classes are like, and what life is like on campus. Almost anyone could take this basic speech and specifically tailor the speech to fit her or his own university or college. The main points in this example could be rearranged and the organizational pattern would still be effective because there is no inherent logic to the sequence of points. Let’s look at a second example.
|Specific Purpose||To inform a group of college students about the uses and misuses of Internet dating|
|Main Points||I. Define and describe Internet dating.|
|II. Explain some strategies to enhance your Internet dating experience.|
|III. List some warning signs to look for in potential online dates.|
In this speech, the speaker is talking about how to find others online and date them. Specifically, the speaker starts by explaining what Internet dating is; then the speaker talks about how to make Internet dating better for her or his audience members; and finally, the speaker ends by discussing some negative aspects of Internet dating. Again, notice that the information is chunked into three categories or topics and that the second and third could be reversed and still provide a logical structure for your speech
Another method for organizing main points is the comparison/contrast speech patternSpeech format in which a speaker selects two objects or ideas and demonstrates how they are similar or how they are different.. While this pattern clearly lends itself easily to two main points, you can also create a third point by giving basic information about what is being compared and what is being contrasted. Let’s look at two examples; the first one will be a two-point example and the second a three-point example.
|Specific Purpose||To inform a group of physicians about Drug X, a newer drug with similar applications to Drug Y|
|Main Points||I. Show how Drug X and Drug Y are similar.|
|II. Show how Drug X and Drug Y differ.|
|Specific Purpose||To inform a group of physicians about Drug X, a newer drug with similar applications to Drug Y|
|Main Points||I. Explain the basic purpose and use of both Drug X and Drug Y.|
|II. Show how Drug X and Drug Y are similar.|
|III. Show how Drug X and Drug Y differ.|
If you were using the comparison/contrast pattern for persuasive purposes, in the preceding examples, you’d want to make sure that when you show how Drug X and Drug Y differ, you clearly state why Drug X is clearly the better choice for physicians to adopt. In essence, you’d want to make sure that when you compare the two drugs, you show that Drug X has all the benefits of Drug Y, but when you contrast the two drugs, you show how Drug X is superior to Drug Y in some way.
The spatial speech patternSpeech format in which a speaker organizes information according to how things fit together in physical space. organizes information according to how things fit together in physical space. This pattern is best used when your main points are oriented to different locations that can exist independently. The basic reason to choose this format is to show that the main points have clear locations. We’ll look at two examples here, one involving physical geography and one involving a different spatial order.
|Specific Purpose||To inform a group of history students about the states that seceded from the United States during the Civil War|
|Main Points||I. Locate and describe the Confederate states just below the Mason-Dixon Line (Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee).|
|II. Locate and describe the Confederate states in the deep South (South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida).|
|III. Locate and describe the western Confederate states (Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas).|
If you look at a basic map of the United States, you’ll notice that these groupings of states were created because of their geographic location to one another. In essence, the states create three spatial territories to explain.
Now let’s look at a spatial speech unrelated to geography.
|Specific Purpose||To explain to a group of college biology students how the urinary system works|
|Main Points||I. Locate and describe the kidneys and ureters.|
|II. Locate and describe the bladder.|
|III. Locate and describe the sphincter and urethra.|
In this example, we still have three basic spatial areas. If you look at a model of the urinary system, the first step is the kidney, which then takes waste through the ureters to the bladder, which then relies on the sphincter muscle to excrete waste through the urethra. All we’ve done in this example is create a spatial speech order for discussing how waste is removed from the human body through the urinary system. It is spatial because the organization pattern is determined by the physical location of each body part in relation to the others discussed.
The chronological speech patternSpeech format in which a speaker presents information in the order in which it occurred in time—whether backward or forward. places the main idea in the time order in which items appear—whether backward or forward. Here’s a simple example.
|Specific Purpose||To inform my audience about the books written by Winston Churchill|
|Main Points||I. Examine the style and content of Winston Churchill’s writings prior to World War II.|
|II. Examine the style and content of Winston Churchill’s writings during World War II.|
|III. Examine the style and content of Winston Churchill’s writings after World War II.|
In this example, we’re looking at the writings of Winston Churchill in relation to World War II (before, during, and after). By placing his writings into these three categories, we develop a system for understanding this material based on Churchill’s own life. Note that you could also use reverse chronological order and start with Churchill’s writings after World War II, progressing backward to his earliest writings.
As you might guess, the biographical speech patternSpeech format generally used when a speaker wants to describe a person’s life. is generally used when a speaker wants to describe a person’s life—either a speaker’s own life, the life of someone they know personally, or the life of a famous person. By the nature of this speech organizational pattern, these speeches tend to be informative or entertaining; they are usually not persuasive. Let’s look at an example.
|Specific Purpose||To inform my audience about the early life of Marilyn Manson|
|Main Points||I. Describe Brian Hugh Warner’s early life and the beginning of his feud with Christianity.|
|II. Describe Warner’s stint as a music journalist in Florida.|
|III. Describe Warner’s decision to create Marilyn Manson and the Spooky Kids.|
In this example, we see how Brian Warner, through three major periods of his life, ultimately became the musician known as Marilyn Manson.
In this example, these three stages are presented in chronological order, but the biographical pattern does not have to be chronological. For example, it could compare and contrast different periods of the subject’s life, or it could focus topically on the subject’s different accomplishments.
The causal speech patternSpeech format that is built upon two main points: cause and effect. is used to explain cause-and-effect relationships. When you use a causal speech pattern, your speech will have two basic main points: cause and effect. In the first main point, typically you will talk about the causes of a phenomenon, and in the second main point you will then show how the causes lead to either a specific effect or a small set of effects. Let’s look at an example.
|Specific Purpose||To inform my audience about the problems associated with drinking among members of Native American tribal groups|
|Main Points||I. Explain the history and prevalence of drinking alcohol among Native Americans.|
|II. Explain the effects that abuse of alcohol has on Native Americans and how this differs from the experience of other populations.|
In this case, the first main point is about the history and prevalence of drinking alcohol among Native Americans (the cause). The second point then examines the effects of Native American alcohol consumption and how it differs from other population groups.
However, a causal organizational pattern can also begin with an effect and then explore one or more causes. In the following example, the effect is the number of arrests for domestic violence.
|Specific Purpose||To inform local voters about the problem of domestic violence in our city|
|Main Points||I. Explain that there are significantly more arrests for domestic violence in our city than in cities of comparable size in our state.|
|II. List possible causes for the difference, which may be unrelated to the actual amount of domestic violence.|
In this example, the possible causes for the difference might include stricter law enforcement, greater likelihood of neighbors reporting an incident, and police training that emphasizes arrests as opposed to other outcomes. Examining these possible causes may suggest that despite the arrest statistic, the actual number of domestic violence incidents in your city may not be greater than in other cities of similar size.
Another format for organizing distinct main points in a clear manner is the problem-cause-solution speech patternSpeech format in which a speaker discusses what a problem is, what the speaker believes is causing the problem, and then what the solution should be to correct the problem.. In this format you describe a problem, identify what you believe is causing the problem, and then recommend a solution to correct the problem.
|Specific Purpose||To persuade a civic group to support a citywide curfew for individuals under the age of eighteen|
|Main Points||I. Demonstrate that vandalism and violence among youth is having a negative effect on our community.|
|II. Show how vandalism and violence among youth go up after 10:00 p.m. in our community.|
|III. Explain how instituting a mandatory curfew at 10:00 p.m. would reduce vandalism and violence within our community.|
In this speech, the speaker wants to persuade people to pass a new curfew for people under eighteen. To help persuade the civic group members, the speaker first shows that vandalism and violence are problems in the community. Once the speaker has shown the problem, the speaker then explains to the audience that the cause of this problem is youth outside after 10:00 p.m. Lastly, the speaker provides the mandatory 10:00 p.m. curfew as a solution to the vandalism and violence problem within the community. The problem-cause-solution format for speeches generally lends itself to persuasive topics because the speaker is asking an audience to believe in and adopt a specific solution.
A further way to organize your main ideas within a speech is through a psychological speech patternSpeech format built on basic logic in which “a” leads to “b” and “b” leads to “c.” in which “a” leads to “b” and “b” leads to “c.” This speech format is designed to follow a logical argument, so this format lends itself to persuasive speeches very easily. Let’s look at an example.
|Specific Purpose||To persuade a group of nurses to use humor in healing the person|
|Main Points||I. How laughing affects the body|
|II. How the bodily effects can help healing|
|III. Strategies for using humor in healing|
In this speech, the speaker starts by discussing how humor affects the body. If a patient is exposed to humor (a), then the patient’s body actually physiologically responds in ways that help healing (b—e.g., reduces stress, decreases blood pressure, bolsters one’s immune system, etc.). Because of these benefits, nurses should engage in humor use that helps with healing (c).
Each of the preceding organizational patterns is potentially useful for organizing the main points of your speech. However, not all organizational patterns work for all speeches. For example, as we mentioned earlier, the biographical pattern is useful when you are telling the story of someone’s life. Some other patterns, particularly comparison/contrast, problem-cause-solution, and psychological, are well suited for persuasive speaking. Your challenge is to choose the best pattern for the particular speech you are giving.
You will want to be aware that it is also possible to combine two or more organizational patterns to meet the goals of a specific speech. For example, you might wish to discuss a problem and then compare/contrast several different possible solutions for the audience. Such a speech would thus be combining elements of the comparison/contrast and problem-cause-solution patterns. When considering which organizational pattern to use, you need to keep in mind your specific purpose as well as your audience and the actual speech material itself to decide which pattern you think will work best.