This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0 license. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.
This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.
Normally, the author and publisher would be credited here. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Additionally, per the publisher's request, their name has been removed in some passages. More information is available on this project's attribution page.
For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. You can browse or download additional books there. To download a .zip file containing this book to use offline, simply click here.
Problems marked with a ♦ involve multiple concepts.
♦ Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a very stable gas that is used in a wide range of applications because it is nontoxic, nonflammable, and noncorrosive. Unfortunately, it is also a very powerful “greenhouse gas” that is about 22,000 times more effective at causing global warming than the same mass of CO2.
♦ The elevated concentrations of chlorine monoxide (ClO) that accompany ozone depletions in Earth’s atmosphere can be explained by a sequence of reactions. In the first step, chlorine gas is split into chlorine atoms by sunlight. Each chlorine atom then catalyzes the decomposition of ozone through a chlorine monoxide intermediate.
♦ Saccharin is an artificial sweetener that was discovered in 1879. For several decades, it was used by people who had to limit their intake of sugar for medical reasons. Because it was implicated as a carcinogen in 1977, however, warning labels are now required on foods and beverages containing saccharin. The structure of this sweetener is as follows:
♦ Pheromones are chemical signals used for communication between members of the same species. For example, the bark beetle uses an aggregation pheromone to signal other bark beetles to congregate at a particular site in a tree. Bark beetle infestations can cause severe damage because the beetles carry a fungal infection that spreads rapidly and can kill the tree. One of the components of this aggregation pheromone has the following structure:
Carbon monoxide is highly poisonous because it binds more strongly than O2 to the iron in red blood cells, which transport oxygen in the blood. Consequently, a victim of CO poisoning suffocates from a lack of oxygen. Draw a molecular orbital energy-level diagram for CO. What is the highest occupied molecular orbital? Are any of the molecular orbitals degenerate? If so, which ones?
There are six electron groups, the molecular geometry is octahedral, and the hybridization of S is sp3d2.