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To ensure that you understand the material in this chapter, you should review the meanings of the following bold terms in the following summary and ask yourself how they relate to the topics in the chapter.
A phase is a certain form of matter that has the same physical properties throughout. Three phases are common: the solid, the liquid, and the gas phase. What determines the phase of a substance? Generally, the strength of the intermolecular interactions determines whether a substance is a solid, liquid, or gas under any particular conditions. Covalent network bonding is a very strong form of intermolecular interaction. Diamond is one example of a substance that has this intermolecular interaction. Ionic interactions, the forces of attraction due to oppositely charged ions, are also relatively strong. Covalent bonds are another type of interaction within molecules, but if the bonds are polar covalent bonds, then the unequal sharing of electrons can cause charge imbalances within molecules that cause interactions between molecules. These molecules are described as polar, and these interactions are called dipole-dipole interactions. A certain rather strong type of dipole-dipole interaction, involving a hydrogen atom, is called hydrogen bonding. On the other hand, equal sharing of electrons forms nonpolar covalent bonds, and the interactions between different molecules is less because the molecules are nonpolar. All substances have very weak dispersion forces (also called London forces) caused by the movement of electrons within the bonds themselves.
In the solid phase, intermolecular interactions are so strong that they hold the individual atoms or molecules in place. In many solids, the regular three-dimensional arrangement of particles makes a crystal. In other solids, the irregular arrangement of particles makes an amorphous solid. In liquids, the intermolecular interactions are strong enough to keep the particles of substance together but not in place. Thus, the particles are free to move over each other but still remain in contact.
In gases, the intermolecular interactions are weak enough that the individual particles are separated from each other in space. The kinetic theory of gases is a collection of statements that describe the fundamental behavior of all gases. Among other properties, gases exert a pressure on their container. Pressure is measured using units like pascal, bar, atmosphere, or mmHg (also called a torr).
There are several simple relationships between the variables used to describe a quantity of gas. These relationships are called gas laws. Boyle’s law relates the pressure and volume of a gas, while Charles’s law relates the volume and absolute temperature of a gas. The combined gas law relates the volume, pressure, and absolute temperature of a gas sample. All of these gas laws allow us to understand the changing conditions of a gas. The ideal gas law relates the pressure, volume, amount, and absolute temperature of a gas under any conditions. These four variables are related to the ideal gas law constant, which is the proportionality constant used to calculate the conditions of a gas. Because the conditions of a gas can change, a set of benchmark conditions called standard temperature and pressure (STP) is defined. Standard temperature is 0ºC, and standard pressure is 1.00 atm.
How many grams of oxygen gas are needed to fill a 25.0 L container at 0.966 atm and 22°C?
A breath of air is about 1.00 L in volume. If the pressure is 1.00 atm and the temperature is 37°C, what mass of air is contained in each breath? Use an average molar mass of 28.8 g/mol for air.
The balanced chemical equation for the combustion of propane is as follows:C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) → 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(ℓ)
The equation for the formation of ammonia gas (NH3) is as follows:N2(g) + 3H2(g) → 2NH3(g)
At 500°C and 1.00 atm, 10.0 L of N2 gas are reacted to make ammonia.
At 20°C, 1 g of liquid H2O has a volume of 1.002 mL. What volume will 1 g of water vapor occupy at 20°C if its pressure is 17.54 mmHg? By what factor has the water expanded in going from the liquid phase to the gas phase?
At 100°C, 1 g of liquid H2O has a volume of 1.043 mL. What volume will 1 g of steam occupy at 100°C if its pressure is 760.0 mmHg? By what factor has the water expanded in going from the liquid phase to the gas phase?
Predict whether NaCl or NaI will have the higher melting point. Explain. (Hint: consider the relative strengths of the intermolecular interactions of the two compounds.)
Predict whether CH4 or CH3OH will have the lower boiling point. Explain. (Hint: consider the relative strengths of the intermolecular interactions of the two compounds.)
A standard automobile tire has a volume of about 3.2 ft3 (where 1 ft3 equals 28.32 L). Tires are typically inflated to an absolute pressure of 45.0 pounds per square inch (psi), where 1 atm equals 14.7 psi. Using this information with the ideal gas law, determine the number of moles of air needed to fill a tire if the air temperature is 18.0°C.
Another gas law, Amontons’s law, relates pressure and temperature under conditions of constant amount and volume:
If an automobile tire (see Exercise 9) is inflated to 45.0 psi at 18.0°C, what will be its pressure if the operating temperature (i.e., the temperature the tire reaches when the automobile is on the road) is 45.0°C? Assume that the volume and the amount of the gas remain constant.
57.81 L; an expansion of 57,700 times
NaCl; with smaller anions, NaCl likely experiences stronger ionic bonding.