This is “The Bigger Picture”, section 5.4 from the book Finance for Managers (v. 0.1). For details on it (including licensing), click here.

For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. You can browse or download additional books there. To download a .zip file containing this book to use offline, simply click here.

Has this book helped you? Consider passing it on:
Creative Commons supports free culture from music to education. Their licenses helped make this book available to you. helps people like you help teachers fund their classroom projects, from art supplies to books to calculators.

5.4 The Bigger Picture

PLEASE NOTE: This book is currently in draft form; material is not final.

Learning Objectives

  1. Discuss the role pro forma statements play in financial management.
  2. Identify the ethical considerations involved when creating pro forma statements.

Pro forma statements are used to make many business decisions. Should we launch a new product line or open a new factory? Should we add another sales person or a worker in the plant? Pro formas use our best judgements to construct likely scenarios about the future. Accurately and appropriately used and constructed they can be helpful tools to improve our business.

When analyzing pro forma statements, it is important to understand how they were constructed, what the assumptions were and how to read them. Cash flows can be manipulated as well as assumptions. Economic and political conditions can change quickly which can strongly influence business outcomes. As with most predictions—take them with a grain of salt. No one can predict the future with 100% accuracy.

Ethical Considerations

Managers within a company may have different objectives. Someone in sales may want to have a low sales projection so they are guaranteed to ‘hit their number’ and earn their bonus. A retiring manager may want to maximize their current year compensation or the company’s share price to maximize their retirement benefit. When constructing pro forma statements managers may also have different opinions on the likelihood of the outcome of each scenario. While pro forma statements are projections, many business decisions are based upon them. Correct calculation and analysis is important.

Key Takeaways

  • Pro forma statements assist managers in making many business decisions.
  • Ethics play an important role in the correct creation of pro forma statements.