This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3.0 license. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author (but see below), don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms.
This content was accessible as of December 29, 2012, and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book.
Normally, the author and publisher would be credited here. However, the publisher has asked for the customary Creative Commons attribution to the original publisher, authors, title, and book URI to be removed. Additionally, per the publisher's request, their name has been removed in some passages. More information is available on this project's attribution page.
For more information on the source of this book, or why it is available for free, please see the project's home page. You can browse or download additional books there. To download a .zip file containing this book to use offline, simply click here.
Products and processes have historically been designed for cradle to grave. That is, design has only considered the product from the point of manufacture to disposal. With growing awareness of environmental impacts and companies’ tendency to externalize costs, there has been a shift in thinking about design in terms of cradle to cradleA way of thinking about manufacturing design from the acquisition of raw materials to the point of recycle and reuse, with a goal of zero waste., or from the point of acquisition of raw materials to the point of recycle and reuse.McDonough and Braungart (2002). Cradle to cradle design requires a shift in thinking about traditional manufacturing, recycling, and environmentalism. Cradle to cradle design encourages us not to choose the least environmentally damaging approach but rather to create and design a better approach. Cradle to cradle design encourages the integration of nature into the design process with a goal of zero waste. Products and processes integrating this design philosophy can receive Cradle to Cradle certification.McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry, LLC (2008).